ReSPECT resources

Read clinical publications, research and additional resources that support the ReSPECT process.

Patients, carers and healthcare professionals can access patient guides, leaflets, resources for young people, digital top tips, information for care homes and more via the links below, and catch up on the latest research and findings to do with ReSPECT. 

Find out more about ReSPECT.

These resources were co-produced by researchers at the University of Warwick and the University of Leeds together with people with lived experience of learning disability as part of a research project funded by the National Institute of Health Research Health and Social Care Delivery Research Programme (project number 13/13/16). The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NIHR or the Department of Health and Social Care.

The resources are designed to be used by health and social care professionals to support a person with a learning disability to think about and prepare for making a ReSPECT plan.

Browse recent publications below, or find out more on our research page. 

  • Time to Change From Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders to Emergency Care Treatment Plans. Gavin D. Perkins, MD, FRCP, FFICM; Zoe Fritz, PhD, FRCP.
  • Successful implementation of the ReSPECT (Recommended Summary Plan for Emergency Care and Treatment) process in a large UK based NHS Trust. Michelle Davies, Keith Couper, Luke Jeyes, Paul Slater, John Speakman, Milind.
  • Evaluation of ReSPECT forms in critical care: A clinical audit. Samuel Trethewey, Julien Morlet, Damhnaic McDonald, Danika Dowling, Michelle Davies, Gavin Perkins.
  • Resuscitation policy should focus on the patient, not the decision. Fritz Z, Slowther AM, Perkins GD.
  • Emergency care and resuscitation plans. Pitcher D, Fritz Z, Wang M, Spiller JA.
  • ReSPECT is a personal emergency care plan summary. Fritz Z, Pitcher D, Regnard C, Spiller J, Wang M.
  • Time to ReSPECT personal resuscitation plans for adults? Wolff T, Whitehouse WP. 
  • Development of a national approach to resuscitation decisions: The Recommended Summary Plan for Emergency Care and Treatment (ReSPECT) Zoe Fritz, David Pitcher, Claire Hawkes, J.P. Nolan
  • Development of the Recommended Summary Plan for Emergency Care and Treatment (ReSPECT) Claire A. Hawke, Zoe Fritz, Gavin Deas, Sam H. Ahmedza, Alison Richardson, David Pitcher, Juliet Spiller, Gavin D Perkins. [On behalf of the ReSPECT working group collaborators]
  • Advance care planning in patients referred to hospital for acute medical care: Results of a national day of care survey Thomas Knight, Alexandra Malyon, Zoe Fritz, Chris Subbed, Tim Cooksley, Mark Holland, Daniel Lassersona.
  • Recommended summary plan for emergency care and treatment: ReSPECT a mixed-methods study [Internet] Perkins GD, Hawkes CA, Eli K, Griffin J, Jacques C, Huxley CJ, Couper K, Ochieng C, Fuld J, Fritz Z, George R, Gould D, Lilford R, Underwood M, Baldock C, Bassford C, Fortune PM, Speakman J, Wilkinson A, Ewings B, Warwick J, Griffiths F, Slowther AM. Southampton (UK): National Institute for Health and Care Research; 2022 Dec. PMID: 36548453.
  • Using the recommended summary plan for emergency care and treatment (ReSPECT) in care homes: a qualitative interview study Kesten JM, Redwood S, Pullyblank A, Tavare A, Pocock L, Brant H, Hill EM, Tutaev M, Shum RZ, Banks J. Age Ageing. 2022 Oct 6;51(10):afac226.

Analysis of ReSPECT conversations, and evaluations of how to improve them ReSPECT facilitated person-centred conversations about care home residents preferences for emergency care. Translation of preferences in to actions during emergency situations proved difficult in some cases.

  • Implementation of ReSPECT in acute hospitals: A retrospective observational study Hawkes CA, Griffin J, Eli K, Griffiths F, Slowther AM, Fritz Z, Underwood M, Baldock C, Gould D, Lilford R, Jacques C, Warwick J, Perkins GD. Resuscitation. 2022 Sep;178:26-35.  Epub 2022 Jun 30. PMID: 35779800. 

System wide evaluation section Uptake of ReSPECT across 6 acute hospitals (2016-18) 1 in 5 patients in-patients had a ReSPECT form.  Patients with ReSPECT tended to be older, have presented as an emergency admission, had cognitive impairment and a lower predicted 10 year survival. ReSPECT forms included treatment recommendations in 9 out of 10 patients. 

  • Why are some ReSPECT conversations left incomplete? A qualitative case study analysis Eli K, Huxley CJ, Hawkes CA, Perkins GD, Slowther AM, Griffiths F. Resusc Plus. 2022 Jun 14;10:100255. PMID: 35734306; PMCID: PMC9207560.
  • Comparison of clinicians' perceptions of the Recommended Summary Plan for Emergency Care and Treatment (ReSPECT) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic Hartanto M, Suthantirakumar R. Resusc Plus. 2022 Mar;9:100206. Epub 2022 Jan 14. PMID: 35043099; PMCID: PMC8758283.
  • Assessing the quality of ReSPECT documentation using an accountability for reasonableness framework Eli K, Hawkes CA, Fritz Z, Griffin J, Huxley CJ, Perkins GD, Wilkinson A, Griffiths F, Slowther AM. Resusc Plus. 2021 Jul 29;7:100145. PMID: 34382025; PMCID: PMC8340300.
  • General practitioners' experiences of emergency care and treatment planning in England: a focus group study Huxley CJ, Eli K, Hawkes CA, Perkins GD, George R, Griffiths F, Slowther AM. BMC Fam Pract. 2021 Jun 24;22(1):128. PMID: 34167478; PMCID: PMC8224258.
  • An evaluation of advance care planning during the COVID-19 pandemic: a retrospective review of patient involvement in decision making using routinely collected data from digital ReSPECT records Hurlow A, Wyld L, Breen A. Clin Med (Lond). 2021 Jul;21(4):e395-e398. Epub 2021 May 6. PMID: 33958345; PMCID: PMC8313194.
  • Why, when and how do secondary-care clinicians have emergency care and treatment planning conversations? Qualitative findings from the ReSPECT Evaluation study Eli K, Hawkes CA, Ochieng C, Huxley CJ, Baldock C, Fortune PM, Fuld J, Perkins GD, Slowther AM, Griffiths F. Resuscitation. 2021 May;162:343-350. Epub 2021 Jan 19. PMID: 33482270.
  • Advanced care planning during the COVID-19 pandemic: ceiling of care decisions and their implications for observational data Straw S, McGinlay M, Drozd M, Slater TA, Cowley A, Kamalathasan S, Maxwell N, Bird RA, Koshy AO, Prica M, Patel PA, Relton SD, Gierula J, Cubbon RM, Kearney MT, Witte KK.. BMC Palliat Care. 2021 Jan 11;20(1):10. Erratum in: BMC Palliat Care. 2022 Dec 16;21(1):224. PMID: 33430850; PMCID: PMC7797882.
  • Secondary care consultant clinicians' experiences of conducting emergency care and treatment planning conversations in England: an interview-based analysis Eli K, Ochieng C, Hawkes C, Perkins GD, Couper K, Griffiths F, Slowther AM. BMJ Open. 2020 Jan 20;10(1):e031633. PMID: 31964663; PMCID: PMC7044868.
  • Development of the Recommended Summary Plan for eEmergency Care and Treatment (ReSPECT) Hawkes CA, Fritz Z, Deas G, Ahmedzai SH, Richardson A, Pitcher D, Spiller J, Perkins GD; ReSPECT working group collaborators. Resuscitation. 2020 Mar 1;148:98-107. Epub 2020 Jan 13. PMID: 31945422.
  • Implementing and improving the ReSPECT process within medical and orthopaedic departments of a district general hospital, Progress in Palliative Care Gary Peter Misselbrook, Daniel Jackman, Chintan Vora, Toby Briant-Evans & Anna Wilkinson (2020), 28:4, 254-259,